Roosevelt Elk, Redwood National Park by SteveD. on Flickr.
The noise these 1200 lb. beasts make as they lock horns is something - sounds like someone whacking a tree with a 2X4. I was starting down the Irvine Trail to Fern Valley when the noise brought me out of the redwoods into a frosted meadow to see these guys dueling in the fog. Quite a show. They bugle, toss turf at each other, and then joust - bang! I counted harems with up to 35 females being guarded by a male or two.